Measurements in Environmental Engineering
Part I. Civil and Environmental Engineering
Published Online: 16 NOV 2013
Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering
How to Cite
Vallero, D. A. 2013. Measurements in Environmental Engineering. Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering. I:5:159–204.
- Published Online: 16 NOV 2013
The quality of environmental decisions depends on reliable environmental data. These data are obtained from field samples that are either analyzed on site or collected for laboratory analysis. Measurements of air, water, soil, sediment, and biota are used either directly, for example, monitoring wells around a hazardous waste site, or indirectly, for example, extrapolations in time and space. Extrapolations of environmental conditions are often accomplished using models. This chapter provides guidance on selecting sites to be sampled, preparing environmental monitoring plans based on data quality objectives, and analyzing the samples. The numerous sources of variability and uncertainty are introduced, including means of expressing data limitations. The chapter concludes with examples of how measurement data have been used, notably as environmental indicators and in environmental indices.
- Beer–Lambert Law;
- biochemical oxygen demand (BOD);
- composite sample;
- data quality objectives (DQO);
- dissolved oxygen (DO);
- environmental contaminant;
- environmental index;
- environmental indicators;
- environmental sampling and analysis;
- geographic information systems (GIS);
- grab sample;
- limit of detection (LoD);
- limit of quantification (LoQ);
- mass spectroscopy;
- Monte Carlo method;