4. Histogram Analysis

  1. Hans Georg Schaathun

Published Online: 22 AUG 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118437957.ch4

Machine Learning in Image Steganalysis

Machine Learning in Image Steganalysis

How to Cite

Schaathun, H. G. (2012) Histogram Analysis, in Machine Learning in Image Steganalysis, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118437957.ch4

Author Information

  1. Ålesund University College, Norway

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 22 AUG 2012
  2. Published Print: 21 AUG 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470663059

Online ISBN: 9781118437957



  • features, analysis of histogram in steganalysis;
  • histogram use, in statistical steganalysis in spatial/JPEG;
  • machine learning, ability in not revealing statistical model to designer;
  • designing embedding to fit models of natural images, for discrepancies;
  • feature selection for classification, in steganalysis to design algorithms;
  • histogram CF for probability distributions in frequency domain;
  • HCF as features for steganalysis, Python in calculating HCF/ALE;
  • multi-dimensional histograms capturing correlation;
  • grey-scale images and higher-order features;
  • second-order ALE features and co-occurrence matrices


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Early Histogram Analysis

  • Notation

  • Additive Independent Noise

  • Multi-dimensional Histograms

  • Experiment and Comparison