19. Mixed-Effects Models

  1. Michael J. Crawley

Published Online: 6 NOV 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118448908.ch19

The R Book, Second Edition

The R Book, Second Edition

How to Cite

Crawley, M. J. (2012) Mixed-Effects Models, in The R Book, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118448908.ch19

Author Information

  1. Imperial College London at Silwood Park, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 6 NOV 2012
  2. Published Print: 7 DEC 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470973929

Online ISBN: 9781118448908



  • mixed-effects models;
  • replication and pseudoreplication;
  • the lme and lmer functions;
  • best linear unbiased predictors;
  • designed experiments with different spatial scales, split plots;
  • mixed-effects models, with temporal pseudoreplication;
  • random effects in designed experiments;
  • time series analysis in mixed-effects models;
  • GLM, hierarchically structured count data


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Replication and pseudoreplication

  • The lme and lmer functions

  • Best linear unbiased predictors

  • Designed experiments with different spatial scales: Split plots

  • Hierarchical sampling and variance components analysis

  • Mixed-effects models with temporal pseudoreplication

  • Time series analysis in mixed-effects models

  • Random effects in designed experiments

  • Regression in mixed-effects models

  • Generalized linear mixed models