1. Skeletal Morphogenesis and Embryonic Development

  1. Clifford J. Rosen MD
  1. Yingzi Yang

Published Online: 19 JUL 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118453926.ch1

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition

How to Cite

Yang, Y. (2013) Skeletal Morphogenesis and Embryonic Development, in Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition (ed C. J. Rosen), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Ames, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118453926.ch1

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 JUL 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781118453889

Online ISBN: 9781118453926

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Keywords:

  • chondrocyte proliferation;
  • embryonic cartilage;
  • embryonic development;
  • skeletal morphogenesis;
  • skeletal patterning

Summary

Formation of the skeletal system is a hallmark that distinguishes vertebrates from invertebrates. The positional identity of each skeletal element is acquired early in embryonic development, before mesenchymal condensation, by pattern formation. Cell-cell communication plays a critical role in pattern formation, and is mediated by several major signaling pathways. These pathways are also used later in skeletal development to control cell fate determination, proliferation, maturation, and polarity. Skeletal formation is a process that has been perfected and highly conserved during vertebrate evolution. Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating cartilage and bone formation during development allows us to redeploy these pathways to promote skeletal tissue repair using endogenous cells, autologous cells and tissues, or induced pleuripotent stem (iPS) cells. Understanding skeletal development is indispensable for understanding pathological mechanisms in skeletal diseases, finding therapeutic targets, promoting consistent cartilage or bone repair in vivo and eventually growing functional cartilage or bone in vitro.