103. Epidemiology of Nephrolithiasis

  1. Clifford J. Rosen MD
  1. Murray J. Favus

Published Online: 19 JUL 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118453926.ch103

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition

How to Cite

Favus, M. J. (2013) Epidemiology of Nephrolithiasis, in Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition (ed C. J. Rosen), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Ames, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118453926.ch103

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 JUL 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781118453889

Online ISBN: 9781118453926

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Keywords:

  • diabetes;
  • nephrolithiasis;
  • nutritional risk factors;
  • obesity

Summary

Nephrolithiasis is a frequent disease that affects about 10% of people in Western countries. This chapter reviews the epidemiology of kidney stones, and provides insight into potential causes and contributing factors. Prevalence (patients with a history of kidney stones) and incidence (rate of new kidney stones in the population) of kidney stones reveal its global distribution and the increasing frequency throughout the Western world. Nutritional risk factors including excessive consumption of animal proteins, sodium chloride, and caloric intake, and insufficient dietary intake of fruits, potassium-rich vegetables, and water, favor excessive urine concentration of solutes. Heritability was estimated to account for 56% of stone prevalence, based on a prospective study. Obesity influences the urine composition and therefore the crystal composition of stones; diabetes is also a risk factor for stones.