108. Development of the Craniofacial Skeleton

  1. Clifford J. Rosen MD
  1. Maiko Matsui and
  2. John Klingensmith

Published Online: 19 JUL 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118453926.ch108

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition

How to Cite

Matsui, M. and Klingensmith, J. (2013) Development of the Craniofacial Skeleton, in Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition (ed C. J. Rosen), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Ames, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118453926.ch108

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 JUL 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781118453889

Online ISBN: 9781118453926

SEARCH

Keywords:

  • craniofacial skeletal elements;
  • craniosynostosis;
  • mandibular development;
  • micrognathia;
  • orofacial cleft;
  • palatal development;
  • skull base deformities

Summary

This chapter summarizes current knowledge of normal craniofacial morphogenesis and the developmental basis of its major anomalies, focusing on craniofacial skeletal elements. Palatogenesis is a dynamic process, with each step crucial for proper development of the palate. The palate is divided into two main parts: primary palate and secondary palate. Orofacial clefts, among the most common congenital malformations, result from failure in the joining of bilateral facial structures during development. The frequency of deformities in the skull base is less than that of defects in other parts of the craniofacial skeleton. It is critical to maintain proper regulation of gene expression, tissue growth, and patterning for development of craniofacial skeletal elements. Among the congenital deformities found in newborns, craniofacial defects such as orofacial clefts, micrognathia, and craniosynostosis occur at a frequency second only to congenital heart defects.