15. Human Fetal and Neonatal Bone Development

  1. Clifford J. Rosen MD
  1. Tao Yang,
  2. Monica Grover,
  3. Kyu Sang Joeng and
  4. Brendan Lee

Published Online: 19 JUL 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118453926.ch15

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition

How to Cite

Yang, T., Grover, M., Joeng, K. S. and Lee, B. (2013) Human Fetal and Neonatal Bone Development, in Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition (ed C. J. Rosen), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Ames, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118453926.ch15

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 JUL 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781118453889

Online ISBN: 9781118453926

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Keywords:

  • bone disorders;
  • fetal bone development;
  • neonatal bone development;
  • skeletal physiology

Summary

This chapter focuses on human data related to the physiology of fetal and neonatal bone development, and the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that lead to fetal and neonatal bone disorders. Ossification is an important component of bone development and growth, and it involves the coordination of osteoblast differentiation, matrix production, mineralization, and vasculogenesis. Maternal nutrition during pregnancy influences fetal nutrition. Many toxins and drugs have been implicated in the etiology of axial skeletal defects, including retinoic acid, valproic acid, arsenic, and carbon monoxide. These can lead to vertebral body defects such as block vertebra and nonsegmented hemivertebra. Multiple signaling and metabolic pathways are involved in fetal bone development, and the identification of human mutations serves as a major guide for uncovering these signaling pathways and mechanisms.