18. Calcium and Other Nutrients During Growth

  1. Clifford J. Rosen MD
  1. Tania Winzenberg and
  2. Graeme Jones

Published Online: 19 JUL 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118453926.ch18

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition

How to Cite

Winzenberg, T. and Jones, G. (2013) Calcium and Other Nutrients During Growth, in Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition (ed C. J. Rosen), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Ames, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118453926.ch18

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 JUL 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781118453889

Online ISBN: 9781118453926

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Keywords:

  • bone mineral density (BMD);
  • calcium;
  • childhood bone development;
  • nutritional factors;
  • randomized controlled trials (RCTs)

Summary

This chapter reviews key nutritional influences on childhood bone development. Key nutritional factors include calcium, vitamin D, fruits, vegetables, breastfeeding, salt, and milk, and avoidance of soft drinks. It is widely accepted that an adequate calcium intake in childhood is important for bone development, though the results of observational and intervention studies are mixed. The effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation for improving bone density in children was examined in a recent meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Fruit and vegetable intake is postulated to have effects on bone through a number of mechanisms. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if sodium intake does in fact have a clinically important effect on bone in children. The effects of low milk consumption in childhood may extend into adult life, with associations seen with lower bone mineral density (BMD) and higher risk of fracture in adult women.