22. Regulation of Calcium and Magnesium

  1. Clifford J. Rosen MD
  1. Murray J. Favus and
  2. David Goltzman

Published Online: 19 JUL 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118453926.ch22

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition

How to Cite

Favus, M. J. and Goltzman, D. (2013) Regulation of Calcium and Magnesium, in Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition (ed C. J. Rosen), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Ames, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118453926.ch22

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 JUL 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781118453889

Online ISBN: 9781118453926

SEARCH

Keywords:

  • calcium;
  • extracellular fluid (ECF);
  • hydroxyapatite crystal;
  • magnesium;
  • mineral homeostasis

Summary

The hydroxyapatite crystal plays a key role in the mechanical weight-bearing properties of bone and serves as a ready source of calcium (CA) to support a number of calcium-dependent biological systems and to maintain blood ionized calcium within the normal range. The skeleton, the gut, and the kidney each play a major role in assuring calcium homeostasis. Calciotropic hormones such as parathyroid hormone (PTH), PTHrP, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 initiate osteoclastic bone resorption and increase the activation frequency of bone remodeling. Magnesium content of the hydroxyapatite crystal in bone varies widely and is mainly on the surface of bone where a portion is in equilibrium with extracellular fluid (ECF) magnesium. In the cells, magnesium serves as a cofactor and regulates a number of essential biological systems. The concentration of magnesium in the ECF approaches that of the intracellular environment.