23. Fetal Calcium Metabolism

  1. Clifford J. Rosen MD
  1. Christopher S. Kovacs

Published Online: 19 JUL 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118453926.ch23

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition

How to Cite

Kovacs, C. S. (2013) Fetal Calcium Metabolism, in Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition (ed C. J. Rosen), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Ames, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118453926.ch23

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 JUL 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781118453889

Online ISBN: 9781118453926

SEARCH

Keywords:

  • fetal calcium metabolism;
  • fetal parathyroids;
  • fetal skeleton;
  • vitamin D receptor (VDR)

Summary

This chapter reviews existing human and animal data on regulation of fetal mineral homeostasis. Fetal mineral metabolism has adapted to maintain a high extracellular level of calcium (and other minerals) that is physiologically appropriate for fetal tissues and to provide sufficient calcium (and other minerals) to fully mineralize the skeleton before birth. The high level of calcium in the fetal circulation is robustly maintained despite maternal hypocalcemia from a variety of causes. Data from animal models indicate that a normal rate of maternal-to-fetal calcium transfer can usually be maintained despite the presence of maternal hypocalcemia or maternal hormone deficiencies such as aparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency, and absence of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The chapter concludes with a discussion on integrated fetal calcium metabolism.