47. Calcium and Vitamin D

  1. Clifford J. Rosen MD
  1. Bess Dawson-Hughes

Published Online: 19 JUL 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118453926.ch47

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition

How to Cite

Dawson-Hughes, B. (2013) Calcium and Vitamin D, in Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition (ed C. J. Rosen), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Ames, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118453926.ch47

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 JUL 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781118453889

Online ISBN: 9781118453926

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Keywords:

  • balance;
  • bone mineral density (BMD);
  • calcium;
  • fracture rates;
  • muscle strength;
  • vitamin D

Summary

Calcium and vitamin D support bone growth in children and adolescents, and lower rates of bone loss in adults and the elderly. The impact of vitamin D on falls is likely to be mediated by its effect on muscle strength and balance. The reduced risk of fracture likely results from effects of vitamin D on muscle, balance, fall risk, and bone metabolism. In recent randomized controlled trials testing the anti-fracture efficacy of the antiresorptive therapies, alendronate, risedronate, raloxifene, and calcitonin, and the anabolic drug, PTH 1-34, calcium and vitamin D have been given to the control and intervention groups. This allows defining the impact of these drugs in calcium- and vitamin D-replete patients, and concluding that efficacy of the drugs is beyond that associated with calcium and vitamin D alone. Adequate intakes of calcium and vitamin D are essential preventative measures and essential components of any therapeutic regimen for osteoporosis.