79. Disorders of Mineral Metabolism in Childhood

  1. Clifford J. Rosen MD
  1. Thomas O. Carpenter

Published Online: 19 JUL 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118453926.ch79

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition

Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition

How to Cite

Carpenter, T. O. (2013) Disorders of Mineral Metabolism in Childhood, in Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, Eighth Edition (ed C. J. Rosen), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Ames, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118453926.ch79

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 JUL 2013
  2. Published Print: 19 AUG 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781118453889

Online ISBN: 9781118453926

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Keywords:

  • calcium homeostasis;
  • childhood;
  • magnesium homeostasis;
  • mineral metabolism;
  • phosphate homeostasis

Summary

This chapter outlines disorders of mineral metabolism, namely, calcium, phosphate, and magnesium homeostasis, that occur in children emphasizing the specific features of the age group, describing their causes, treatment, and consequences. The disorders discussed include hypocalcemia, hypoparathyroidism, hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypermagnesemia. Hypocalcemia associated with magnesium (Mg) deficiency may present as late neonatal hypocalcemia. Persistent hypocalcemia detected in childhood may be due to congenital hypoparathyroidism. Hypercalcemia usually subsides spontaneously by 1 year of age but may rarely persist for longer. Hypophosphatemia may result from decreased Pi supply, excessive renal losses, or intracellular/extracellular compartmental movement of Pi. A massive exogenous phosphate load may occur with use of phosphate-containing enemas resulting in hyperphosphatemia and hypernatremia. Hypomagnesemia may accompany renal losses due to the tubulopathy observed with the use of drugs: chemotherapeutic agents, aminoglycosides, and cyclosporine are typical culprits in children.