1. Evolution of Cardiac Mapping: From Direct Analog to Digital Multi-dimensional Recording

  1. Mohammad Shenasa MD4,
  2. Gerhard Hindricks MD5,
  3. Martin Borggrefe MD6,
  4. Günter Breithardt MD7 and
  5. Mark E. Josephson MD8
  1. Jacques M. T. de Bakker1,2,3 and
  2. Marc A. Vos1

Published Online: 18 DEC 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch1

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

How to Cite

de Bakker, J. M. T. and Vos, M. A. (2013) Evolution of Cardiac Mapping: From Direct Analog to Digital Multi-dimensional Recording, in Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition (eds M. Shenasa, G. Hindricks, M. Borggrefe, G. Breithardt and M. E. Josephson), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch1

Editor Information

  1. 4

    Attending Physician, Department of Cardiovascular Services, O'Connor Hospital, Heart & Rhythm Medical Group, San Jose, California, USA

  2. 5

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), University Leipzig, Heart Center, Director, Department of Electrophysiology, Leipzig, Germany

  3. 6

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), Head, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, University Medical Center, Mannheim Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany

  4. 7

    Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Cardiology, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hospital of the University of Münster, Münster, Germany

  5. 8

    Chief, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Director, Harvard-Thorndike Electrophysiology Institute and Arrhythmia Service, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Herman C. Dana Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Medical Physiology and the Division of Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands

  2. 2

    The Center of Heart Failure Research, Department of Experimental Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

  3. 3

    Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht, the Netherlands

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 DEC 2012
  2. Published Print: 10 JAN 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470670460

Online ISBN: 9781118481585



  • electrophysiology;
  • mapping;
  • electrogram;
  • conduction;
  • electrode;
  • history


Mapping of the electrical activity of the heart started in the late 1870s and has evolved from indirect recordings with a rheotome by Engelmann to highly sophisticated direct recordings of cardiac potentials with multi-terminal electrodes. This chapter mainly focuses on direct recordings from the heart. Developments of cardiac mapping from the rheotome via the string galvanometer and cathode ray tube to computerized digital mapping systems will be followed, and focus will be directed to various aspects that are important for mapping procedures. The advantages and disadvantages of different recording modes will be addressed and the different types of information that are derived from electrograms will be discussed. Ways to obtain three-dimensional information from catheters or multi-electrode arrays will be reviewed, and various other techniques to obtain information about propagation and repolarization of the action potential from the heart are explained.