10. Panoramic Optical Imaging of Cardiac Arrhythmias

  1. Mohammad Shenasa MD2,
  2. Gerhard Hindricks MD3,
  3. Martin Borggrefe MD4,
  4. Günter Breithardt MD5 and
  5. Mark E. Josephson MD6
  1. Crystal M. Ripplinger

Published Online: 18 DEC 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch10

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

How to Cite

Ripplinger, C. M. (2013) Panoramic Optical Imaging of Cardiac Arrhythmias, in Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition (eds M. Shenasa, G. Hindricks, M. Borggrefe, G. Breithardt and M. E. Josephson), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch10

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Attending Physician, Department of Cardiovascular Services, O'Connor Hospital, Heart & Rhythm Medical Group, San Jose, California, USA

  2. 3

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), University Leipzig, Heart Center, Director, Department of Electrophysiology, Leipzig, Germany

  3. 4

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), Head, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, University Medical Center, Mannheim Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany

  4. 5

    Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Cardiology, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hospital of the University of Münster, Münster, Germany

  5. 6

    Chief, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Director, Harvard-Thorndike Electrophysiology Institute and Arrhythmia Service, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Herman C. Dana Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Author Information

  1. Department of Pharmacology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Davis, CA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 DEC 2012
  2. Published Print: 10 JAN 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470670460

Online ISBN: 9781118481585



  • panoramic optical mapping;
  • panoramic imaging;
  • arrhythmia;
  • defibrillation


Optical mapping of electrophysiological activity with voltage-sensitive dyes has emerged as an invaluable tool for the investigation of arrhythmia mechanisms in isolated hearts. However, traditional optical mapping techniques using a single optical detector are inherently limited by the two-dimensional field of view of the mapped region. To overcome this limitation, panoramic optical mapping techniques have been developed to image electrophysiological activity from the entire epicardial surface of intact hearts. This chapter will discuss the methods and techniques developed for panoramic imaging as well as review important physiological insights gained using this technique.