11. Optical Imaging of Arrhythmias in Cardiomyocyte Monolayer Culture

  1. Mohammad Shenasa MD5,
  2. Gerhard Hindricks MD6,
  3. Martin Borggrefe MD7,
  4. Günter Breithardt MD8 and
  5. Mark E. Josephson MD9
  1. Herman D. Himel IV1,
  2. Gil Bub2 and
  3. Nabil El-Sherif3,4

Published Online: 18 DEC 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch11

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

How to Cite

Himel IV, H. D., Bub, G. and El-Sherif, N. (2013) Optical Imaging of Arrhythmias in Cardiomyocyte Monolayer Culture, in Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition (eds M. Shenasa, G. Hindricks, M. Borggrefe, G. Breithardt and M. E. Josephson), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch11

Editor Information

  1. 5

    Attending Physician, Department of Cardiovascular Services, O'Connor Hospital, Heart & Rhythm Medical Group, San Jose, California, USA

  2. 6

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), University Leipzig, Heart Center, Director, Department of Electrophysiology, Leipzig, Germany

  3. 7

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), Head, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, University Medical Center, Mannheim Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany

  4. 8

    Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Cardiology, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hospital of the University of Münster, Münster, Germany

  5. 9

    Chief, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Director, Harvard-Thorndike Electrophysiology Institute and Arrhythmia Service, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Herman C. Dana Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA

  2. 2

    Department of Physiology, Anatomy, and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

  3. 3

    State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA

  4. 4

    Veteran Affairs New York Harbor Healthcare System, Brooklyn, NY, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 DEC 2012
  2. Published Print: 10 JAN 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470670460

Online ISBN: 9781118481585



  • optical mapping;
  • microscopic optical mapping;
  • macroscopic optical mapping;
  • arrhythmias;
  • monolayer;
  • spiral loop reentry;
  • focal rhythm;
  • ventricular fibrillation;
  • neonatal rat ventricular myocytes;
  • myofibroblasts;
  • heterogeneity and intercellular coupling;
  • alternans;
  • myocardial ischemia/reperfusion;
  • anisotropy


In recent years, cultured cardiac cell monolayers have become a contemporary experimental preparation for the study of fundamental mechanisms that underlie normal and pathological electrophysiology at the tissue level. Ion channels of cardiomyocytes, as well as gap junctional coupling in the monolayer, may be either suppressed or enhanced by drugs, or by genetic silencing or overexpression. The cardiomyocyte monolayer is particularly well-suited for studies of the functional electrophysiological properties of mixtures of cardiac myocytes and non-myocytes cells (e.g. myofibroblasts), which would otherwise be difficult to investigate. Optical mapping of monolayers has given insight into mechanisms that can set the stage for arrhythmias, such as unidirectional conduction block, gap junctional uncoupling, ischemia and alternans, and continues to enhance our understanding of basic electrophysiological mechanisms.