3. Microelectrode Arrays in Cardiac Mapping

  1. Mohammad Shenasa MD3,
  2. Gerhard Hindricks MD4,
  3. Martin Borggrefe MD5,
  4. Günter Breithardt MD6 and
  5. Mark E. Josephson MD7
  1. Thomas Meyer1,
  2. Elke Guenther2 and
  3. Udo Kraushaar2

Published Online: 18 DEC 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch3

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

How to Cite

Meyer, T., Guenther, E. and Kraushaar, U. (2013) Microelectrode Arrays in Cardiac Mapping, in Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition (eds M. Shenasa, G. Hindricks, M. Borggrefe, G. Breithardt and M. E. Josephson), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch3

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Attending Physician, Department of Cardiovascular Services, O'Connor Hospital, Heart & Rhythm Medical Group, San Jose, California, USA

  2. 4

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), University Leipzig, Heart Center, Director, Department of Electrophysiology, Leipzig, Germany

  3. 5

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), Head, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, University Medical Center, Mannheim Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany

  4. 6

    Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Cardiology, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hospital of the University of Münster, Münster, Germany

  5. 7

    Chief, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Director, Harvard-Thorndike Electrophysiology Institute and Arrhythmia Service, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Herman C. Dana Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Multi Channel Systems, Reutlingen, Germany

  2. 2

    Natural and Medical Sciences Institute at the University of Tuebingen, Reutlingen, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 DEC 2012
  2. Published Print: 10 JAN 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470670460

Online ISBN: 9781118481585



  • microelectrode array;
  • electrophysiology;
  • stem cells;
  • cardiomyocytes;
  • cardiac slices;
  • conduction velocity;
  • langendorff heart;
  • iPS cells


Mapping cardiac excitation and signal propagation pattern is an important diagnostic and therapeutic approach in clinical cardiac electrophysiology. In this chapter we describe cardiac mapping approaches mainly for in-vitro applications in basic research and drug discovery. The applications use substrate embedded microelectrode array technologies. The mapping of cardiac signal propagation can be performed in cell cultures, in tissue preparations and in complete organs, respectively. Novel approaches integrate cardiomyocytes obtained from embryonic, adult and induced pluripotent cells. These cells - as well as primary cardiomyocytes - can be also used in tissue engineering. On the tissue level, cardiac slices have seen a renaissance within the last decade. The classical organ model for epicardial mapping is the isolated perfused Langendorff heart.

At the beginning, this chapter focuses on the methodology while in the second part, applications of cardiac mapping in the various cell and tissue models are discussed.