5. Comparison of Mapping Technologies for Cardiac Electrophysiology

  1. Mohammad Shenasa MD2,
  2. Gerhard Hindricks MD3,
  3. Martin Borggrefe MD4,
  4. Günter Breithardt MD5 and
  5. Mark E. Josephson MD6
  1. Ross J. Hunter and
  2. Richard J. Schilling

Published Online: 18 DEC 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch5

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

How to Cite

Hunter, R. J. and Schilling, R. J. (2013) Comparison of Mapping Technologies for Cardiac Electrophysiology, in Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition (eds M. Shenasa, G. Hindricks, M. Borggrefe, G. Breithardt and M. E. Josephson), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch5

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Attending Physician, Department of Cardiovascular Services, O'Connor Hospital, Heart & Rhythm Medical Group, San Jose, California, USA

  2. 3

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), University Leipzig, Heart Center, Director, Department of Electrophysiology, Leipzig, Germany

  3. 4

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), Head, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, University Medical Center, Mannheim Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany

  4. 5

    Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Cardiology, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hospital of the University of Münster, Münster, Germany

  5. 6

    Chief, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Director, Harvard-Thorndike Electrophysiology Institute and Arrhythmia Service, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Herman C. Dana Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Author Information

  1. Department of Cardiology, St. Bartholomew's Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust & QMUL, London, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 DEC 2012
  2. Published Print: 10 JAN 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470670460

Online ISBN: 9781118481585



  • EnSite;
  • NavX;
  • Velocity;
  • CARTO;
  • CARTOmerge;
  • CARTOsound;
  • Verismo;
  • electroanatomic mapping;
  • non-contact mapping;
  • multielectrode array;
  • image integration;
  • CFAE;
  • rotational angiography


As the number of complex ablation procedures performed annually increases exponentially, so does our reliance on technology such as three-dimensional (3D) mapping systems. These are evolving rapidly, with significant improvements in the new CARTO 3 (Bioscience-Webster, Baldwin Park, CA, USA) and EnSite Velocity (St. Jude Medical, Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA), which still have their relative advantages. Both systems have developed facilities for image integration and mapping of fractionated electrograms in atrial fibrillation (AF). LocaLisa (Medtronic, Arden Hills, MN, USA) and the Real-Time Position Management System (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA) have been largely superseded. However, new technologies such as overlaying imaging on fluoroscopy, importing scar imaging into mapping systems, integration of remotely navigated systems with 3D mapping and novel mapping techniques such as ripple mapping have emerged. This intense competition and rapid advancement can only be good news for electrophysiologists and their patients.