1. Interpretation of Electrograms and Complex Maps of Different Mapping Technologies

  1. Mohammad Shenasa MD3,
  2. Gerhard Hindricks MD4,
  3. Martin Borggrefe MD5,
  4. Günter Breithardt MD6 and
  5. Mark E. Josephson MD7
  1. Kyoko Soejima1 and
  2. Seiji Fukamizu2

Published Online: 18 DEC 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch6

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

How to Cite

Soejima, K. and Fukamizu, S. (2013) Interpretation of Electrograms and Complex Maps of Different Mapping Technologies, in Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition (eds M. Shenasa, G. Hindricks, M. Borggrefe, G. Breithardt and M. E. Josephson), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch6

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Attending Physician, Department of Cardiovascular Services, O'Connor Hospital, Heart & Rhythm Medical Group, San Jose, California, USA

  2. 4

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), University Leipzig, Heart Center, Director, Department of Electrophysiology, Leipzig, Germany

  3. 5

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), Head, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, University Medical Center, Mannheim Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany

  4. 6

    Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Cardiology, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hospital of the University of Münster, Münster, Germany

  5. 7

    Chief, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Director, Harvard-Thorndike Electrophysiology Institute and Arrhythmia Service, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Herman C. Dana Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Cardiology, Kyorin University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

  2. 2

    Department of Cardiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Hiroo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 DEC 2012
  2. Published Print: 10 JAN 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470670460

Online ISBN: 9781118481585



  • electroanatomical mapping system;
  • far-field potential;
  • entrainment mapping


Electroanatomical mapping systems reconstruct detailed anatomical and electrical information, and yield information on the substrate of complex arrhythmias associated with structural heart disease. However, correct interpretation of electrograms is crucial to maximize the merits of the system. The complex electrogram is frequently observed in the substrate. We have to remember that these modern mapping systems are not meant to substitute the electrophysiological mapping maneuvers, such as entrainment mapping, pace mapping or activation mapping. In this chapter, we will cover the pitfalls of each mapping system and emphasize the importance of the electrogram interpretation.