64. Multi-modality and Multi-dimensional Mapping: How Far Do We Need To Go?

  1. Mohammad Shenasa MD2,
  2. Gerhard Hindricks MD3,
  3. Martin Borggrefe MD4,
  4. Günter Breithardt MD5 and
  5. Mark E. Josephson MD6
  1. Nikolaos Kanagkinis,
  2. Arash Arya and
  3. Gerhard Hindricks

Published Online: 18 DEC 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch64

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

How to Cite

Kanagkinis, N., Arya, A. and Hindricks, G. (2013) Multi-modality and Multi-dimensional Mapping: How Far Do We Need To Go?, in Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition (eds M. Shenasa, G. Hindricks, M. Borggrefe, G. Breithardt and M. E. Josephson), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch64

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Attending Physician, Department of Cardiovascular Services, O'Connor Hospital, Heart & Rhythm Medical Group, San Jose, California, USA

  2. 3

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), University Leipzig, Heart Center, Director, Department of Electrophysiology, Leipzig, Germany

  3. 4

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), Head, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, University Medical Center, Mannheim Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany

  4. 5

    Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Cardiology, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hospital of the University of Münster, Münster, Germany

  5. 6

    Chief, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Director, Harvard-Thorndike Electrophysiology Institute and Arrhythmia Service, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Herman C. Dana Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Author Information

  1. University of Leipzig, Heart Center, Leipzig, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 DEC 2012
  2. Published Print: 10 JAN 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470670460

Online ISBN: 9781118481585



  • cardiac arrhythmias;
  • electroanatomical mapping systems;
  • ventricular tachycardias;
  • atrial fibrillation;
  • breathing pattern;
  • heart motion;
  • catheter ablation;
  • CARTO mapping system;
  • NavX systems


The number of ablations of cardiac arrhythmias has increased rapidly over the last decade. Reducing radiation exposure requires the use of electroanatomical mapping systems. Initially these technologies have been used in ablation of ventricular tachycardias. In the recent years, electroanatomical mapping systems have become an important component in the management of atrial fibrillation. The accuracy of these systems is influenced by several factors, including breathing pattern, heart motion (especially changes in cardiac chamber volumes) and registration strategy. In this chapter we review the current technologies and the future perspectives.