65. Advances in Non-invasive Electrocardiographic Imaging: Examples of Atrial Arrhythmias

  1. Mohammad Shenasa MD2,
  2. Gerhard Hindricks MD3,
  3. Martin Borggrefe MD4,
  4. Günter Breithardt MD5 and
  5. Mark E. Josephson MD6
  1. Yoram Rudy,
  2. Phillip S. Cuculich and
  3. Ramya Vijayakumar

Published Online: 18 DEC 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch65

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

How to Cite

Rudy, Y., Cuculich, P. S. and Vijayakumar, R. (2013) Advances in Non-invasive Electrocardiographic Imaging: Examples of Atrial Arrhythmias, in Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition (eds M. Shenasa, G. Hindricks, M. Borggrefe, G. Breithardt and M. E. Josephson), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch65

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Attending Physician, Department of Cardiovascular Services, O'Connor Hospital, Heart & Rhythm Medical Group, San Jose, California, USA

  2. 3

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), University Leipzig, Heart Center, Director, Department of Electrophysiology, Leipzig, Germany

  3. 4

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), Head, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, University Medical Center, Mannheim Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany

  4. 5

    Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Cardiology, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hospital of the University of Münster, Münster, Germany

  5. 6

    Chief, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Director, Harvard-Thorndike Electrophysiology Institute and Arrhythmia Service, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Herman C. Dana Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Author Information

  1. Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 DEC 2012
  2. Published Print: 10 JAN 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470670460

Online ISBN: 9781118481585



  • atrial fibrillation;
  • atrial flutter;
  • atrial tachycardia;
  • atrial arrhythmias;
  • electrocardiographic imaging;
  • electrocardiographic mapping


Atrial arrhythmias, and in particular atrial fibrillation (AF), are the most common cardiac rhythm disorders. Improved diagnosis and treatment of atrial arrhythmias require understanding of their mechanisms in humans. This requires simultaneous continuous mapping of activation in both atria with sufficient spatial resolution and over sufficiently long time windows. This is particularly essential for AF, where the activation sequence is constantly dynamically changing. electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI; also called electrocardiographic mapping, ECM) is a non-invasive imaging modality for cardiac electrophysiology and arrhythmias developed in our laboratory; it provides continuous three-dimensional maps of cardiac activation and repolarization on the epicardial surface of the heart non-invasively. This chapter compiles ECGI data from previously published reports of various types of atrial arrhythmias. Examples include typical and atypical atrial flutter, atrial tachycardia, and different types of AF as defined clinically.