66. ST Segment Mapping in Ventricular Tachycardia

  1. Mohammad Shenasa MD2,
  2. Gerhard Hindricks MD3,
  3. Martin Borggrefe MD4,
  4. Günter Breithardt MD5 and
  5. Mark E. Josephson MD6
  1. Levent Sahiner and
  2. Ali Oto

Published Online: 18 DEC 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch66

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

How to Cite

Sahiner, L. and Oto, A. (2013) ST Segment Mapping in Ventricular Tachycardia, in Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition (eds M. Shenasa, G. Hindricks, M. Borggrefe, G. Breithardt and M. E. Josephson), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch66

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Attending Physician, Department of Cardiovascular Services, O'Connor Hospital, Heart & Rhythm Medical Group, San Jose, California, USA

  2. 3

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), University Leipzig, Heart Center, Director, Department of Electrophysiology, Leipzig, Germany

  3. 4

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), Head, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, University Medical Center, Mannheim Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany

  4. 5

    Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Cardiology, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hospital of the University of Münster, Münster, Germany

  5. 6

    Chief, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Director, Harvard-Thorndike Electrophysiology Institute and Arrhythmia Service, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Herman C. Dana Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Author Information

  1. Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 DEC 2012
  2. Published Print: 10 JAN 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470670460

Online ISBN: 9781118481585



  • ventricular tachycardia;
  • cardiac arrhythmia;
  • ventricular fibrillation;
  • antiarrhythmic drug therapy;
  • cardiac death;
  • catheter ablation;
  • electrophysiological mapping;
  • non-invasive cardiac mapping;
  • electrocardiographic imaging


Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is an important, life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia that may degenerate to ventricular fibrillation and lead to sudden cardiac death. In the current practice, besides antiarrhythmic drug therapy and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, catheter ablation techniques are extensively used in the management of VT. Successful catheter ablation of these arrhythmias requires detailed invasive electrophysiological mapping of the arrhythmogenic substrate and precise localization of the site of origin. Non-invasive methods that accurately localize arrhythmogenic substrate prior to catheter ablation are of crucial importance as their proper use may increase the procedural success and decrease the radiation exposure. In this chapter; the role of the ST segment alternans in the pathogenesis of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias is summarized and non-invasive cardiac mapping modalities including electrocardiographic imaging and three-dimensional cardiac electrical imaging are briefly reviewed.