7. Cardiac Mapping: Approach and Troubleshooting for the Electrophysiologist

  1. Mohammad Shenasa MD3,
  2. Gerhard Hindricks MD4,
  3. Martin Borggrefe MD5,
  4. Günter Breithardt MD6 and
  5. Mark E. Josephson MD7
  1. Matthew J. Swale1 and
  2. Samuel J. Asirvatham2

Published Online: 18 DEC 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch7

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

How to Cite

Swale, M. J. and Asirvatham, S. J. (2013) Cardiac Mapping: Approach and Troubleshooting for the Electrophysiologist, in Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition (eds M. Shenasa, G. Hindricks, M. Borggrefe, G. Breithardt and M. E. Josephson), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch7

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Attending Physician, Department of Cardiovascular Services, O'Connor Hospital, Heart & Rhythm Medical Group, San Jose, California, USA

  2. 4

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), University Leipzig, Heart Center, Director, Department of Electrophysiology, Leipzig, Germany

  3. 5

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), Head, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, University Medical Center, Mannheim Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany

  4. 6

    Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Cardiology, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hospital of the University of Münster, Münster, Germany

  5. 7

    Chief, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Director, Harvard-Thorndike Electrophysiology Institute and Arrhythmia Service, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Herman C. Dana Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA

  2. 2

    Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 DEC 2012
  2. Published Print: 10 JAN 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470670460

Online ISBN: 9781118481585



  • mapping;
  • electrophysiology;
  • ablation;
  • electrocardiography;
  • electroanatomic


Cardiac electrophysiology has rapidly grown as an interventional therapeutic modality for an increasing number of patients and arrhythmia disorders. A major reason for these advances has been the availability and use of cardiac mapping systems. The practicing electrophysiologist, however, necessarily needs a thorough understanding of appropriate collection of data points to have a result that is anatomically and physiologically meaningful.

To properly utilize available mapping systems, not only does the interventional electrophysiologist need to be cognizant of the inherent limitations of these symptoms but must be certain that the raw material being fed into the system (electrograms, annotation, anatomic points, registration, etc.) are meticulously obtained and accurate. In this chapter, we review the techniques for collecting these data points and present an algorithm to troubleshoot common errors resulting from inappropriate data collection.