78. Array Tomography for Cardiovascular Imaging: Description of Technique and Potential Applications

  1. Mohammad Shenasa MD3,
  2. Gerhard Hindricks MD4,
  3. Martin Borggrefe MD5,
  4. Günter Breithardt MD6 and
  5. Mark E. Josephson MD7
  1. Sanaz Saatchi1,
  2. Stephen J. Smith2 and
  3. Kristina D. Micheva2

Published Online: 18 DEC 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch78

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

How to Cite

Saatchi, S., Smith, S. J. and Micheva, K. D. (2013) Array Tomography for Cardiovascular Imaging: Description of Technique and Potential Applications, in Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition (eds M. Shenasa, G. Hindricks, M. Borggrefe, G. Breithardt and M. E. Josephson), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch78

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Attending Physician, Department of Cardiovascular Services, O'Connor Hospital, Heart & Rhythm Medical Group, San Jose, California, USA

  2. 4

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), University Leipzig, Heart Center, Director, Department of Electrophysiology, Leipzig, Germany

  3. 5

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), Head, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, University Medical Center, Mannheim Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany

  4. 6

    Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Cardiology, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hospital of the University of Münster, Münster, Germany

  5. 7

    Chief, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Director, Harvard-Thorndike Electrophysiology Institute and Arrhythmia Service, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Herman C. Dana Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA

  2. 2

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 DEC 2012
  2. Published Print: 10 JAN 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470670460

Online ISBN: 9781118481585



  • array tomography;
  • immunofluorescence;
  • infrarenal aorta;
  • synapses;
  • cardiac innervation


Array tomography is a recently developed high-resolution proteomic imaging method. It allows the multiplexed imaging of dozens of antigens within preserved tissue structural context at submicron resolution (200 nm × 200 nm × 70 nm voxels) and is amenable to quantification. While array tomography has had very limited application in cardiovascular research until now, this method can be used to address important outstanding questions that have been hard to address with traditional imaging approaches, such as the three-dimensional ultrastructural and molecular organization of blood vessels or of the heart's nervous system. In this chapter we present the application of array tomography for the quantitative analysis of the vasculature and the potential of this method for exploring the organization and molecular diversity of cardiac innervation.