8. Optical Mapping: Its Impact on Understanding Arrhythmia Mechanisms

  1. Mohammad Shenasa MD2,
  2. Gerhard Hindricks MD3,
  3. Martin Borggrefe MD4,
  4. Günter Breithardt MD5 and
  5. Mark E. Josephson MD6
  1. Jan Nĕmec,
  2. Jong Kim and
  3. Guy Salama

Published Online: 18 DEC 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch8

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

How to Cite

Nĕmec, J., Kim, J. and Salama, G. (2013) Optical Mapping: Its Impact on Understanding Arrhythmia Mechanisms, in Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition (eds M. Shenasa, G. Hindricks, M. Borggrefe, G. Breithardt and M. E. Josephson), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch8

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Attending Physician, Department of Cardiovascular Services, O'Connor Hospital, Heart & Rhythm Medical Group, San Jose, California, USA

  2. 3

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), University Leipzig, Heart Center, Director, Department of Electrophysiology, Leipzig, Germany

  3. 4

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), Head, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, University Medical Center, Mannheim Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany

  4. 5

    Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Cardiology, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hospital of the University of Münster, Münster, Germany

  5. 6

    Chief, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Director, Harvard-Thorndike Electrophysiology Institute and Arrhythmia Service, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Herman C. Dana Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Author Information

  1. Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 DEC 2012
  2. Published Print: 10 JAN 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470670460

Online ISBN: 9781118481585



  • voltage-sensitive dye;
  • optical mapping of intracellular Ca2+ (Cai) and membrane potential (Vm);
  • GCaMP2;
  • cell therapy for MI;
  • myocardial infarct;
  • cell-cell coupling;
  • optical mapping of the human heart


Mapping cardiac electrical activity using fluorescence imaging techniques (optical mapping) continues to be at the forefront of innovations to better tackle new problems and to make significant advances to our understanding of cardiac arrhythmia mechanisms. Progress has been made in applying optical techniques to investigate the efficacy of cell therapies used to rescue infarcted hearts and to study normal and diseased human hearts. Furthermore, contributions from genetically encoded fluorescent probes have made optical mapping techniques even more versatile. Genetically encoded probes can be targeted to specific cells types in the heart or to cells implanted in the myocardium and thereby measure intracellular free Ca2+ (Cai) for weeks and even months, without loss of signal quality. The ability to track the survival of engrafted cells and their coupling to the recipient heart for weeks after implantation provides critical data for the development of cell therapies.