80. The Future of Cardiac Mapping: Dawn of a New Decade

  1. Mohammad Shenasa MD5,
  2. Gerhard Hindricks MD6,
  3. Martin Borggrefe MD7,
  4. Günter Breithardt MD8 and
  5. Mark E. Josephson MD9
  1. Mohammad Shenasa1,
  2. Shahriar Heidary1,2,
  3. Javad Rahimian3 and
  4. Gerhard Hindricks4

Published Online: 18 DEC 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch80

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition

How to Cite

Shenasa, M., Heidary, S., Rahimian, J. and Hindricks, G. (2013) The Future of Cardiac Mapping: Dawn of a New Decade, in Cardiac Mapping, Fourth Edition (eds M. Shenasa, G. Hindricks, M. Borggrefe, G. Breithardt and M. E. Josephson), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118481585.ch80

Editor Information

  1. 5

    Attending Physician, Department of Cardiovascular Services, O'Connor Hospital, Heart & Rhythm Medical Group, San Jose, California, USA

  2. 6

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), University Leipzig, Heart Center, Director, Department of Electrophysiology, Leipzig, Germany

  3. 7

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), Head, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, University Medical Center, Mannheim Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany

  4. 8

    Professor Emeritus of Medicine and Cardiology, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hospital of the University of Münster, Münster, Germany

  5. 9

    Chief, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Director, Harvard-Thorndike Electrophysiology Institute and Arrhythmia Service, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Herman C. Dana Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Cardiovascular Services, O'Connor Hospital, San Jose, CA, USA and Heart & Rhythm Medical Group, San Jose, CA, USA

  2. 2

    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA, and O'Connor Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Services, San Jose, CA, USA

  3. 3

    Department of Radiation Oncology, Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Los Angeles, CA, USA and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA

  4. 4

    University Leipzig Heart Center and Department of Electrophysiology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 DEC 2012
  2. Published Print: 10 JAN 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470670460

Online ISBN: 9781118481585



  • cardiac mapping;
  • cardiac computed tomography;
  • cardiac magnetic resonance imaging;
  • positron emission tomography;
  • atrial fibrillation;
  • atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia;
  • isochronal mapping;
  • cardiac arrhythmias


Cardiac mapping is a perfect example of the evolution of science and practice in medicine and its related changes and future perspectives. Over the past decade multi-modality and multi-dimensional imaging and its applications in diagnostic and interventional electrophysiology - such as cardiac computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography - have transformed current practice in a way that was previously unimaginable. Furthermore, the combination of these techniques with image integration and fusion on one hand and development of large number of pharmaceuticals and tracers on the other has taken mapping and imaging beyond the whole body, to subcellular levels.

This review discusses some aspects of the advances in the modalities used for accurate diagnosis and equally effective therapies that have resulted in improvements in basic and clinical electrophysiology and its outcomes. Furthermore, the potential future outlook and expectations are briefly discussed to provide a picture of what the future holds in this field.