3. The Epidemiology and Statistics of Diagnostic Testing

  1. Jesse M. Pines1,2,
  2. Christopher R. Carpenter3,4,
  3. Ali S. Raja5 and
  4. Jeremiah D. Schuur5

Published Online: 8 NOV 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118482117.ch3

Evidence-Based Emergency Care: Diagnostic Testing and Clinical Decision Rules, Second Edition

Evidence-Based Emergency Care: Diagnostic Testing and Clinical Decision Rules, Second Edition

How to Cite

Pines, J. M., Carpenter, C. R., Raja, A. S. and Schuur, J. D. (2012) The Epidemiology and Statistics of Diagnostic Testing, in Evidence-Based Emergency Care: Diagnostic Testing and Clinical Decision Rules, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118482117.ch3

Author Information

  1. 1

    Center for Healthcare Quality, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA

  2. 2

    Emergency Medicine and Health Policy, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA

  3. 3

    Evidence Based Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA

  4. 4

    Division of Emergency Medicine, Barnes Jewish Hospital, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA

  5. 5

    Department of Emergency Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 8 NOV 2012
  2. Published Print: 7 NOV 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470657836

Online ISBN: 9781118482117

SEARCH

Keywords:

  • epidemiology/statistics of diagnostic testing;
  • diagnostic test characteristics;
  • “disease” and “test” into “+” and “–” and “Total”;
  • sensitivity/specificity/positive/negative predictive value;
  • calculating a pretest probability;
  • sensitivity and specificity, specificity and disease absence;
  • diagnostic testing, importance of prevalence property;
  • positive predictive value, probability of disease as positive;
  • likelihood ratios and interval likelihood ratios;
  • ROC curves, for finding test cutoffs

Summary

This chapter contains sections titled:

  • The 2 x 2 table

  • Sensitivity and specificity

  • Incidence and prevalence

  • Predictive values

  • Integrating concepts

  • Using 2 x 2 tables: an example

  • Odds, probability, and the odds ratio

  • Likelihood ratios and interval likelihood ratios

  • Using odds, probabilities, and likelihood ratios: an example

  • Bayes theorem

  • Confidence intervals

  • Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves

  • References

  • Additional Reading