7. Novel Cell Therapies in Transplantation
- Nizam Mamode4 and
- Raja Kandaswamy5
Published Online: 23 DEC 2012
Copyright © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Abdominal Organ Transplantation: State of the Art
How to Cite
Shiels, P. G., Stevenson, K. S., Gingell Littlejohn, M. and Clancy, M. (2013) Novel Cell Therapies in Transplantation, in Abdominal Organ Transplantation: State of the Art (eds N. Mamode and R. Kandaswamy), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118483664.ch7
Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK
Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
- Published Online: 23 DEC 2012
- Published Print: 12 FEB 2013
Print ISBN: 9781444334326
Online ISBN: 9781118483664
- solid-organ transplantation;
- stem cells;
- novel cell-based therapies;
- whole-organ transplantation;
- multipotent stromal cells;
- pathfinder cells
Solid-organ transplants replace diseased organs with biologically newer, healthier whole organs, but this strategy is inherently limited. The requirement for an individual with healthy organs to die or to undergo major surgery in order for an organ to be replaced is the central limiting paradox of whole-organ transplantation. Stem-cell treatments represent perhaps the most exciting and most logical of the many ways in which this clinical problem is being addressed. The isolation and propagation of stem-cell lines promised a more permanent and potent method of repair or regeneration of damaged tissue or organs. Indeed, at the time of James Thompson's description of the first embryonic stem-cell lines in 1998, solid-organ transplantation had been established for nearly 3 decades, and the step to having perfect, quality-controlled neo-organs on a shelf ready for surgical implantation appeared small. Initial perceptions have seemingly underestimated the quantum leap from single multipotent stem cell to functioning organ.
The holy grail of cell-based tissue-engineering approaches remains the growth of functional (and ideally tolerant) neo-organs that can spontaneously, or surgically, assimilate into the body and fulfill the role of a diseased organ. While pluripotent cell lines of infinite proliferative capacity have reliably been made to form cardiac myocytes, hepatocytes, and many of the different renal-specific cell types, few have been directed into a neo-organ of adequate function to establish a role in clinical practice, and none in the fields currently managed by major abdominal-organ transplants.