1. Ecosystem Services in Farmland and Cities

  1. Steve Wratten3,
  2. Harpinder Sandhu4,
  3. Ross Cullen5 and
  4. Robert Costanza6
  1. Harpinder Sandhu1 and
  2. Steve Wratten2

Published Online: 20 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118506271.ch1

Ecosystem Services in Agricultural and Urban Landscapes

Ecosystem Services in Agricultural and Urban Landscapes

How to Cite

Sandhu, H. and Wratten, S. (2013) Ecosystem Services in Farmland and Cities, in Ecosystem Services in Agricultural and Urban Landscapes (eds S. Wratten, H. Sandhu, R. Cullen and R. Costanza), A John Wiley & Sons, Oxford. doi: 10.1002/9781118506271.ch1

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Bio-Protection Research Centre Lincoln University, New Zealand

  2. 4

    School of the Environment Flinders University, Australia

  3. 5

    Department of Accounting, Economics and Finance Lincoln University, New Zealand

  4. 6

    Crawford School of Public Policy Australian National University, Australia

Author Information

  1. 1

    School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia

  2. 2

    Bio-Protection Research Centre, Lincoln University, Lincoln, New Zealand

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 JAN 2013
  2. Published Print: 25 MAR 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405170086

Online ISBN: 9781118506271



  • agricultural ecosystem;
  • ecosystem services (ES);
  • engineered ecosystems;
  • Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA);
  • urban ecosystem


Engineered ecosystems from farmland and cities are the most important providers of ecosystem services (ES) for the world population. This chapter discusses the concept of ES, their valuation methods, the types of engineered systems and how ES can be adopted by them to enhance them and ensure an equitable and sustainable future. The ES framework has been increasingly used to explain the interactions between ecosystems and human well-being. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) assessed the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being and provided a framework to identify and classify ES. It established the scientific basis for actions needed to balance nature and human well-being by sustainable use of ecosystems. The chapter follows MEA typology and discusses the ES approach and ecosystem-based adaptation. The ES challenges within cities are enormous and are discussed in the chapter.