8. Experimental Assessment of Ecosystem Services in Agriculture

  1. Steve Wratten4,
  2. Harpinder Sandhu5,
  3. Ross Cullen6 and
  4. Robert Costanza7
  1. Harpinder Sandhu1,
  2. John Porter2 and
  3. Steve Wratten3

Published Online: 20 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118506271.ch8

Ecosystem Services in Agricultural and Urban Landscapes

Ecosystem Services in Agricultural and Urban Landscapes

How to Cite

Sandhu, H., Porter, J. and Wratten, S. (2013) Experimental Assessment of Ecosystem Services in Agriculture, in Ecosystem Services in Agricultural and Urban Landscapes (eds S. Wratten, H. Sandhu, R. Cullen and R. Costanza), A John Wiley & Sons, Oxford. doi: 10.1002/9781118506271.ch8

Editor Information

  1. 4

    Bio-Protection Research Centre Lincoln University, New Zealand

  2. 5

    School of the Environment Flinders University, Australia

  3. 6

    Department of Accounting, Economics and Finance Lincoln University, New Zealand

  4. 7

    Crawford School of Public Policy Australian National University, Australia

Author Information

  1. 1

    School of the Environment, Flinders University, Australia

  2. 2

    Department of Plant and Environmental Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

  3. 3

    Bio-Protection Research Centre, Lincoln University, New Zealand

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 JAN 2013
  2. Published Print: 25 MAR 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781405170086

Online ISBN: 9781118506271



  • agroecosystems;
  • combined food and energy (CFE) system;
  • ecosystem services (ES);
  • field-scale assessment;
  • organic arable cropping


Ecosystem services (ES) in agriculture are vital for the supply of food and fibre. This chapter proposes a framework of ES associated with agroecosystems and a ‘bottom-up’ approach to assess ES experimentally at field level. It elaborates on the conceptual framework of ES in agroecosystems providing field-scale assessments, citing examples from Denmark and New Zealand. Field-scale assessment of ES in agriculture can help in redesigning agricultural landscapes using new ecotechnologies based on novel and sound ecological knowledge to enhance ES. The chapter demonstrates that there is a very wide range of ES provision, with organic arable cropping delivering many times the ES value of that provided by conventional farming. It also provides scenarios for balancing production and ES in agroecosystems that can be explored to maintain and improve farm sustainability and achieve food security.