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Cake/Biofilm Enhanced Concentration Polarization

Membrane Separation and Transport

  1. Jenia Gutman,
  2. Moshe Herzberg

Published Online: 19 APR 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118522318.emst031

Encyclopedia of Membrane Science and Technology

Encyclopedia of Membrane Science and Technology

How to Cite

Gutman, J. and Herzberg, M. 2013. Cake/Biofilm Enhanced Concentration Polarization. Encyclopedia of Membrane Science and Technology. 1–14.

Author Information

  1. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus, Israel

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 APR 2013


In pressure driven membrane processes, different types of resistances limit membrane permeate flux. While permeate flux limitations, in most cases, are intuitively related to hydraulic restrictions, even minor concentrations of particles and colloids can enhance concentration polarization in solute-rejecting membranes, including reverse osmosis and nanofiltration systems. The enhanced concentration polarization phenomenon is attributed to the reduced back-diffusion of salts and other small compounds through fouling layers and is mainly a result of the presence of bacteria, particles, or colloids in the feed water. This chapter presents key points of enhanced concentration polarization effects caused by different types of foulants: particles, colloids, and microorganisms.


  • Reverse Osmosis;
  • Desalination;
  • Fouling, Biofouling, Concentration Polarization;
  • BEOP;
  • CEOP;
  • EPS;
  • Bacteria, Colloids