3. Spine

  1. Andrea Donovan MD3 and
  2. Mark Schweitzer MD4
  1. Chris Heyn1 and
  2. Rafael Glikstein2

Published Online: 22 OCT 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118551691.ch3

Imaging Musculoskeletal Trauma: Interpretation and Reporting

Imaging Musculoskeletal Trauma: Interpretation and Reporting

How to Cite

Heyn, C. and Glikstein, R. (2012) Spine, in Imaging Musculoskeletal Trauma: Interpretation and Reporting (eds A. Donovan and M. Schweitzer), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford. doi: 10.1002/9781118551691.ch3

Editor Information

  1. 3

    Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

  2. 4

    Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

  2. 2

    Department of Medical Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 22 OCT 2012
  2. Published Print: 10 DEC 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781118158814

Online ISBN: 9781118551691

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Keywords:

  • axial loading;
  • cervical spine trauma;
  • craniocervical junction;
  • fractures;
  • imaging tests;
  • odontoid;
  • spine;
  • subaxial spine

Summary

The cervical spine is approached in two separate anatomic and functional regions: the craniocervical junction (occiput, C1 and C2) and the subaxial spine (C3 to C7). Injury to the craniocervical junction or cervical spine trauma is usually indirect, related to forces transmitted through the head. Current recommendations for initial imaging in adults with suspected cervical spine injury is a thin slice CT of the cervical spine. The most common fracture of C1 is a bilateral vertical fracture through the neural arch. Fractures of C2 may occur in isolation or in association with additional cervical spine fractures. The most common fracture of C2 involves the odontoid, followed by Hangman's fracture, anteroinferior endplate (hyperextension teardrop) and least commonly, isolated C2 body or posterior element fractures. A burst fracture commonly results from combined axial loading and flexion vector in C5, C6, and C7 locations. Compression fractures are common in elderly patients with osteoporosis.