4. Shoulder and Proximal Humerus

  1. Andrea Donovan MD2 and
  2. Mark Schweitzer MD3
  1. Andrea Donovan

Published Online: 22 OCT 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118551691.ch4

Imaging Musculoskeletal Trauma: Interpretation and Reporting

Imaging Musculoskeletal Trauma: Interpretation and Reporting

How to Cite

Donovan, A. (2012) Shoulder and Proximal Humerus, in Imaging Musculoskeletal Trauma: Interpretation and Reporting (eds A. Donovan and M. Schweitzer), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford. doi: 10.1002/9781118551691.ch4

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

  2. 3

    Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 22 OCT 2012
  2. Published Print: 10 DEC 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781118158814

Online ISBN: 9781118551691



  • acromioclavicular joint injury;
  • glenohumeral joint dislocation;
  • imaging tests;
  • proximal humerus;
  • scapular fracture;
  • shoulder girdle;
  • shoulder trauma


The shoulder has greatest range of motion of any joint in the body, and is a frequent site of injury. Shoulder girdle includes proximal humerus, scapula, and lateral clavicle. The anatomic structures involved in fracture of the proximal humerus include humeral head, anatomic neck, surgical neck, and greater and lesser tuberosities. The fractures to the proximal humerus result from a direct blow, fall on an outstretched hand in the elderly, or are related to glenohumeral joint fracture-dislocation. Fractures of the humeral shaft may result from direct trauma, high-velocity motor vehicle accidents or a fall. Scapular fractures are infrequent as the scapula is surrounded and protected by large and prominent muscle attachments. Acromioclavicular joint injury is commonly due to a fall onto the point of the shoulder. Radiographs are generally the first step in initial imaging modality for patients with shoulder trauma.