9. Ankle and Foot

  1. Andrea Donovan MD2 and
  2. Mark Schweitzer MD3
  1. Adnan Sheikh

Published Online: 22 OCT 2012

DOI: 10.1002/9781118551691.ch9

Imaging Musculoskeletal Trauma: Interpretation and Reporting

Imaging Musculoskeletal Trauma: Interpretation and Reporting

How to Cite

Sheikh, A. (2012) Ankle and Foot, in Imaging Musculoskeletal Trauma: Interpretation and Reporting (eds A. Donovan and M. Schweitzer), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford. doi: 10.1002/9781118551691.ch9

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

  2. 3

    Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 22 OCT 2012
  2. Published Print: 10 DEC 2012

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781118158814

Online ISBN: 9781118551691



  • ankle;
  • Computed Tomography (CT);
  • dislocation;
  • foot;
  • fracture;
  • imaging evaluation;
  • Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging;
  • radiograph interpretation;
  • trauma;
  • ultrasound


This chapter begins with an introduction of the anatomy of the ankle and foot. Appropriateness criteria for imaging foot and ankle trauma are then discussed. The ankle and foot are anatomically distinct from each other and therefore radiographic evaluation of each is different from the other. Standard ankle radiographs include anteroposterior (AP), lateral, and mortise view, and foot radiographs include AP, lateral, and oblique views. Computed Tomography (CT) is used for pre-operative planning in patients with complex distal tibial and malleolar fractures, tarsal fractures and Lisfranc fracture-dislocations. Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging is indicated in assessment of radiographically occult stress and insufficiency fractures. In the setting of foot and ankle trauma, ultrasound is often performed to evaluate the Achilles tendon for the presence and severity of a tear. The key to interpreting ankle and foot radiographs is familiarity with normal anatomy and injury patterns that may involve the ankle and foot.