10. Non-Invasive Methods to Determine the Severity of NAFLD and NASH

  1. Geoffrey C. Farrell MD, FRACP2,3,
  2. Arthur J. McCullough MD4,5,6 and
  3. Christopher P. Day MA (Cantab), PhD, MD, FRCP, FMedSci7
  1. Vincent Wai-Sun Wong MD, FRCP and
  2. Henry Lik-Yuen Chan

Published Online: 8 MAR 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118556153.ch10

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Practical Guide

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Practical Guide

How to Cite

Wong, V. W.-S. and Chan, H. L.-Y. (2013) Non-Invasive Methods to Determine the Severity of NAFLD and NASH, in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Practical Guide (eds G. C. Farrell, A. J. McCullough and C. P. Day), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118556153.ch10

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Australian National University Medical School, Canberra, ACT, Australia

  2. 3

    The Canberra Hospital, Canberra, ACT, Australia

  3. 4

    Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA

  4. 5

    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Digestive Disease Institute, Cleveland, OH, USA

  5. 6

    Department of Pathobiology, Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH, USA

  6. 7

    Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

Author Information

  1. Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 8 MAR 2013
  2. Published Print: 26 APR 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470673171

Online ISBN: 9781118556153



  • Apoptosis;
  • fibrosis;
  • cirrhosis;
  • ultrasound;
  • magnetic resonance imaging;
  • transient elastography;
  • acoustic radiation force impulse;
  • cytokeratin-18;
  • liver biopsy


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. Although some patients can progress to cirrhosis and liver cancer, the majority have simple steatosis and run a benign clinical course. Finding high-risk cases out of a large number of NAFLD patients is a clinical challenge. Traditionally, liver biopsy is required to assess the severity of NAFLD. However, the procedure is invasive and not welcomed by patients. This chapter introduces recent developments in non-invasive tests for hepatic steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and fibrosis. Potential clinical applications and limitations of the current tests are discussed.