14. The Quality of Paradata: A Literature Review

  1. Frauke Kreuter
  1. Brady T. West1 and
  2. Jennifer Sinibaldi2

Published Online: 30 SEP 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118596869.ch14

Improving Surveys with Paradata

Improving Surveys with Paradata

How to Cite

West, B. T. and Sinibaldi, J. (2013) The Quality of Paradata: A Literature Review, in Improving Surveys with Paradata (ed F. Kreuter), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. doi: 10.1002/9781118596869.ch14

Author Information

  1. 1

    Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan–Ann Arbor

  2. 2

    Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 SEP 2013
  2. Published Print: 24 MAY 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470905418

Online ISBN: 9781118596869



  • computer-generated paradata;
  • interviewer observations;
  • interviewer-recorded call records;
  • paradata


This chapter reviews the existing literature on the quality of paradata. It considers studies presenting both direct evaluations of the quality of a variety of collected paradata, where “gold standard” validation data are available, as well as indirect indicators of the quality, including reliability, ease of collection, and missing data issues. The chapter provides an overview of the available literature on computer-generated paradata and interviewer-recorded call records. The chapter also focuses on the quality of interviewer observations, as most of the current research focuses on this type of paradata. It concludes with a theoretical discussion of mechanisms that could introduce error in various types of paradata.