2. Paradata for Nonresponse Error Investigation

  1. Frauke Kreuter
  1. Frauke Kreuter1 and
  2. Kristen Olson2

Published Online: 30 SEP 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118596869.ch2

Improving Surveys with Paradata

Improving Surveys with Paradata

How to Cite

Kreuter, F. and Olson, K. (2013) Paradata for Nonresponse Error Investigation, in Improving Surveys with Paradata (ed F. Kreuter), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. doi: 10.1002/9781118596869.ch2

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Maryland and IAB/LMU

  2. 2

    University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 SEP 2013
  2. Published Print: 24 MAY 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470905418

Online ISBN: 9781118596869



  • call history data;
  • data collection;
  • interviewer observations;
  • interviewer–householder interaction;
  • nonresponse error investigation;
  • paradata;
  • survey error


This chapter starts with a description of the different sources of paradata relevant for nonresponse error investigation. It discusses the use of paradata to improve data collection efficiency. The chapter provides examples of the use of paradata for nonresponse bias assessment and reduction, and some data management issues that arise when working with paradata. It also examines three types of paradata that can be used to evaluate nonresponse in sample surveys—call history data, interviewer observations of the sampled unit, and measures of the interviewer–householder interaction. These paradata are collected in surveys of any mode, but are most frequently and fruitfully collected in interviewer-administered surveys. Post hoc analyses of these types of paradata are most often conducted, but they are increasingly being used concurrently with data collection itself for purposes of monitoring and tracking field progress and—potentially—nonresponse error indicators.