14. Preparation of Nanofibrillated Cellulose and Cellulose Whiskers

  1. Alain Dufresne1,
  2. Sabu Thomas2 and
  3. Laly A. Pothen3
  1. David Plackett and
  2. Marco Iotti

Published Online: 19 JUL 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118609958.ch14

Biopolymer Nanocomposites: Processing, Properties, and Applications

Biopolymer Nanocomposites: Processing, Properties, and Applications

How to Cite

Plackett, D. and Iotti, M. (2013) Preparation of Nanofibrillated Cellulose and Cellulose Whiskers, in Biopolymer Nanocomposites: Processing, Properties, and Applications (eds A. Dufresne, S. Thomas and L. A. Pothen), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118609958.ch14

Editor Information

  1. 1

    Grenoble Institute of Technology (Grenoble INP), The International School of Paper, Print Media, and Biomaterials (Pagora), Saint Martin d'Hères Cedex, France

  2. 2

    School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India

  3. 3

    Department of Chemistry, Bishop Moore College, Mavelikara, Kerala, India

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 JUL 2013
  2. Published Print: 23 SEP 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781118218358

Online ISBN: 9781118609958

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Keywords:

  • acid hydrolysis;
  • cellulose whiskers;
  • characterization techniques;
  • mechanical treatments;
  • nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC);
  • nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC);
  • pretreatments

Summary

Native cellulose I is considered the key source of nanocellulose. This chapter deals specifically with the preparation and characterization of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) or cellulose whiskers and the current state of their commercial development. Cellulose whiskers are obtained by acid hydrolysis of various forms of cellulose. A section on preparation of NFC discusses mechanical treatments and pretreatments of NFC. The characterization techniques used in studies on NFC production includes field emission gun‐scanning electron microscopy (FEG‐SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The chapter summarizes the current commercial status of NFC and nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). The development of this sector is proceeding rapidly and the companies and other organizations involved must be considered only in light of the current situation at the time of writing.