17. Acute myeloid leukemia


  1. Ross Pinkerton MB, BCh, BaO, MD Executive Director, Division of Oncology2,
  2. Ananth Shankar MD, FRCPCH Consultant in Paediatric and Adolescent Oncology3 and
  3. Katherine K. Matthay BA, MD Mildred V. Strouss Professor of Translational Oncology, Director, Pediatric Hematology-Oncology4
  1. Ananth Shankar

Published Online: 8 MAY 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118625309.ch17

Evidence-Based Pediatric Oncology

Evidence-Based Pediatric Oncology

How to Cite

Shankar, A. (2013) Acute myeloid leukemia, in Evidence-Based Pediatric Oncology (eds R. Pinkerton, A. Shankar and K. K. Matthay), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford. doi: 10.1002/9781118625309.ch17

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Royal Children's Hospital, Children's Health Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

  2. 3

    University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust London, UK

  3. 4

    Department of Pediatrics, UCSF School of Medicine and, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital, San Francisco, CA, USA

Author Information

  1. University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 8 MAY 2013
  2. Published Print: 20 MAY 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470659649

Online ISBN: 9781118625309



  • acute myeloid leukemia (AML);
  • central nervous system (CNS);
  • prophylactic cranial irradiation


To evaluate whether a lower dose of prophylactic cranial irradiation in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is sufficient to prevent central nervous system (CNS) relapse of leukemia. Patients with Down syndrome, CNS leukemia at diagnosis, not in complete remission after 140 days of treatment or those assigned to stem cell transplantation were excluded from trial enrollment. The main analysis was performed on actual treatment received rather than on an intention-to-treat principle. Survival outcomes were estimated using the KaplanMeier method with standard errors according to Greenwood, and were compared with the log-rank test. It was concluded that 12 Gy cranial irradiation was as effective as 18 Gy in preventing CNS relapse in children with AML.