14. Bacterial Infections

  1. David Isaacs

Published Online: 22 NOV 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118636657.ch14

Evidence-Based Neonatal Infections

Evidence-Based Neonatal Infections

How to Cite

Isaacs, D. (2013) Bacterial Infections, in Evidence-Based Neonatal Infections, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118636657.ch14

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 22 NOV 2013
  2. Published Print: 18 DEC 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470654606

Online ISBN: 9781118636657

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Keywords:

  • anaerobic infections;
  • bacterial infections;
  • Bacteroides fragilis;
  • Gram-negative bacilli;
  • Listeria monocytogenes;
  • Neisseria meningitidis;
  • neonatal GBS infection

Summary

Varying strain virulence may be the main explanation for the high rate of neonatal GBS infection in North America compared to Europe before the era of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) despite very similar rates of maternal colonization. Gram-negative bacilli are a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality in resource-rich and resource poor countries; increasing antibiotic resistance is also a major problem. Listeria monocytogenes, a Gram-positive bacillus, is an environmental organism found in soil which can infect humans through ingestion of contaminated foods, including undercooked chicken and other meat, unwashed vegetables and unpasteurized dairy products. Meningococcus (Neisseria meningitidis) is a rare cause of early-onset and late-onset neonatal infections. Bacteroides fragilis meningitis is rare, but almost all reported cases have been in neonates. Metronidazole is the treatment of choice for established anaerobic infections.