22. Developing Countries

  1. David Isaacs

Published Online: 22 NOV 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118636657.ch22

Evidence-Based Neonatal Infections

Evidence-Based Neonatal Infections

How to Cite

Isaacs, D. (2013) Developing Countries, in Evidence-Based Neonatal Infections, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118636657.ch22

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 22 NOV 2013
  2. Published Print: 18 DEC 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470654606

Online ISBN: 9781118636657



  • antibiotics;
  • clean birth practices;
  • community-based interventions;
  • developing countries;
  • neonates;
  • trained birth attendants


This chapter covers issues of neonatal infections that are primarily relevant to developing countries. The majority of deliveries in developing countries take place in the home, not at a health-care facility. The presence of a skilled birth attendant is one of the most important factors in a good neonatal outcome. It is important to be able to use simple clinical criteria to identify neonates in the community with systemic sepsis and/or pneumonia. The predominant pathogens causing early-onset infections in many developing countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Middle East are Gram-negative enteric bacilli, particularly Klebsiella species and E. coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. The appropriate choice of empiric antibiotics depends on the antibiotic susceptibility of local organisms causing neonatal sepsis. It is important to show that interventions are cost-effective in comparison to other competing health-care interventions.