23. Microbial Production of Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid

  1. Shang-Tian Yang1,
  2. Hesham A El-Enshasy2 and
  3. Nuttha Thongchul3
  1. Zhinan Xu,
  2. Huili Zhang,
  3. Hao Chen,
  4. Feng Shi,
  5. Jin Huang,
  6. Shufang Wang and
  7. Cunjiang Song

Published Online: 12 JUL 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118642047.ch23

Bioprocessing Technologies in Biorefinery for Sustainable Production of Fuels, Chemicals, and Polymers

Bioprocessing Technologies in Biorefinery for Sustainable Production of Fuels, Chemicals, and Polymers

How to Cite

Xu, Z., Zhang, H., Chen, H., Shi, F., Huang, J., Wang, S. and Song, C. (2013) Microbial Production of Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid, in Bioprocessing Technologies in Biorefinery for Sustainable Production of Fuels, Chemicals, and Polymers (eds S.-T. Yang, H. A. El-Enshasy and N. Thongchul), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118642047.ch23

Editor Information

  1. 1

    William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA

  2. 2

    Institute of Bioproduct Development (IBD), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

  3. 3

    Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 12 JUL 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470541951

Online ISBN: 9781118642047

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Keywords:

  • bioprocess development;
  • fermentation broth;
  • microbial production;
  • molecular structure modification;
  • poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA);
  • potential applications

Summary

Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is one of the water-soluble and biodegradable poly(amino acids) produced by a variety of microorganisms. This chapter provides a critical literature review of the production and application of γ-PGA, including γ-PGA producer, biosynthetic pathway, efficient bioprocess development, molecular structure modification, and potential applications. Recently, effort has been paid to produce γ-PGA in some engineered hosts, including Escherichia coli, coryneform bacteria, and even tobacco. For the commercial application of γ-PGA, it is necessary to reduce the cost during the fermentation process. Production of γ-PGA has been most extensively studied in the L-glutamic acid-dependent bacteria, which require L-glutamic acid as a precursor of γ-PGA biosynthesis. There are a great variety of applications for γ-PGA and derivates in the food industry. The microbial polymers are expected to be useful flocculating agents due to their biodegradability, and the harmlessness of their degradation intermediates toward humans and the environment.