7. Amylases: Characteristics, Sources, Production, and Applications

  1. Shang-Tian Yang1,
  2. Hesham A El-Enshasy2 and
  3. Nuttha Thongchul3
  1. Hesham A. El-Enshasy,
  2. Yasser R. Abdel Fattah and
  3. Nor Zalina Othman

Published Online: 12 JUL 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118642047.ch7

Bioprocessing Technologies in Biorefinery for Sustainable Production of Fuels, Chemicals, and Polymers

Bioprocessing Technologies in Biorefinery for Sustainable Production of Fuels, Chemicals, and Polymers

How to Cite

El-Enshasy, H. A., Abdel Fattah, Y. R. and Othman, N. Z. (2013) Amylases: Characteristics, Sources, Production, and Applications, in Bioprocessing Technologies in Biorefinery for Sustainable Production of Fuels, Chemicals, and Polymers (eds S.-T. Yang, H. A. El-Enshasy and N. Thongchul), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118642047.ch7

Editor Information

  1. 1

    William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA

  2. 2

    Institute of Bioproduct Development (IBD), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

  3. 3

    Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 12 JUL 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470541951

Online ISBN: 9781118642047

SEARCH

Keywords:

  • amylase production;
  • industrial applications;
  • solid-state fermentation;
  • starch;
  • submerged fermentation (SMF)

Summary

Amylases are the major group of enzymes used for starch enzyme hydrolysis, which is required prior to further fermentation for bioethanol production in biorefinery industries. This chapter discusses the characteristics, sources, production, and applications of amylases in various Industries. The main four industrially important members of the amylase family of a wide range of applications are a-amylase, ß-amylase, glucoamylase (GA), and pullulanase. In general, two main cultivation strategies are applied for amylase production-submerged fermentation (SMF) and solid-state fermentation. Amylases are the most important industrial enzymes based on their wide range of applications in many industries. Production of stable amylases at a high temperature, acidic pH, and calcium independence was successfully achieved by using different approaches, such as production by extermophilic microorganisms, production by recombinant microorganisms, protein engineering and amino acids mutagenesis, a chemical stabilization method, a metal ion stabilization method, and an immobilization method.