2. Sample Preparation, Extractions, and Chromatography

  1. Brian M. Tissue

Published Online: 7 JUN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118647042.ch2

Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria

Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria

How to Cite

Tissue, B. M. (2013) Sample Preparation, Extractions, and Chromatography, in Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118647042.ch2

Author Information

  1. Virginia Tech, Department of Chemistry, Blacksburg, VA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 7 JUN 2013
  2. Published Print: 12 JUL 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470592083

Online ISBN: 9781118647042



  • column chromatography;
  • liquid-liquid extraction;
  • sample preparation;
  • sample processing methods;
  • solid-phase extraction (SPE);
  • solubility;
  • stationary phases


This chapter discusses specific sample preparation and processing methods, after providing a broad overview of the steps involved in making an analytical measurement. It concentrates on the important aspect of describing the reliability of a measurement when reporting an analytical result. Then, it talks about the nature of sample matrices, solutes, and solutions, as knowledge of these is essential for sample preparation and measurements. As a thermodynamic process, the relative amounts that partition between the two phases can be described with an equilibrium constant. The chapter illustrates the quantitative description of partitioning using liquid-liquid extractions. Before discussing solid-phase separation procedures, it describes the nature of the stationary phases, which are often the same in both solid-phase extraction (SPE) and column chromatography. It is not uncommon to use both SPE and chromatography in sample cleanup procedures.