6. Statistical tests

  1. A. Gouveia Oliveira

Published Online: 12 JUL 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118670767.ch06

Biostatistics Decoded

Biostatistics Decoded

How to Cite

Oliveira, A. G. (ed) (2013) Statistical tests, in Biostatistics Decoded, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118670767.ch06

Editor Information

  1. Department of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 12 JUL 2013
  2. Published Print: 3 SEP 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781119953371

Online ISBN: 9781118670767



  • analysis of variance (ANOVA);
  • binomial test;
  • chi-square test;
  • degrees of freedom;
  • F distribution;
  • null hypothesis;
  • p-value;
  • statistical tests;
  • student's t-test;
  • z-test


This chapter describes a few statistical tests that are used to make a decision about the existence of a difference between population means or proportions. All statistical tests are based on the same principle, which is to evaluate the plausibility of a particular hypothesis about the populations taking into account the results observed in the samples. The tests produce a result expressed in terms of the probability of obtaining a difference between the samples. The statistical tests discussed are null hypothesis, z-test, p-value, student's t-test, binomial test, chi-square test, degrees of freedom, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and statistical tables of the F distribution.