14. Aminoglycosides and Aminocyclitols

  1. Steeve Giguère DVM, PhD, DACVIM Professor, Large Animal Internal Medicine1,
  2. John F. Prescott MA, VetMB, PhD Professor2 and
  3. Patricia M. Dowling DVM, MS, DACVIM, DACVCP Professor, Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology3
  1. Patricia M. Dowling

Published Online: 16 AUG 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118675014.ch14

Antimicrobial Therapy in Veterinary Medicine, Fifth Edition

Antimicrobial Therapy in Veterinary Medicine, Fifth Edition

How to Cite

Dowling, P. M. (2013) Aminoglycosides and Aminocyclitols, in Antimicrobial Therapy in Veterinary Medicine, Fifth Edition (eds S. Giguère, J. F. Prescott and P. M. Dowling), John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ. doi: 10.1002/9781118675014.ch14

Editor Information

  1. 1

    Marguerite Hodgson Chair in Equine Studies, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia

  2. 2

    Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph

  3. 3

    Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 16 AUG 2013
  2. Published Print: 20 SEP 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470963029

Online ISBN: 9781118675014

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Keywords:

  • aminocyclitols;
  • aminoglycoside antibiotics;
  • antimicrobial activity;
  • gram-negative bacteria;
  • P. aeruginosa;
  • pharmacokinetic properties;
  • staphylococci

Summary

The aminoglycosides and aminocyclitols are bactericidal antibiotics primarily used to treat serious infections caused by aerobic gram-negative bacteria and staphylococci. Amikacin and tobramycin have excellent activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, the use of aminoglycosides and aminocyclitols has been eclipsed by the development of fluoroquinolones, which have better safety profiles and better distribution kinetics. The aminoglycoside antibiotics-streptomycin, dihydros-treptomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and neomycin-are large molecules with numerous amino acid groups, making them basic polycations that are highly ionized at physiological pHs. This chapter discusses the mechanism of action, antimicrobial activity, resistance, pharmacokinetic properties, drug interactions, toxicity and adverse effects, dosage considerations and clinical usage of aminoglycoside antibiotics.