5. Epidemiology, Progression, Prognosis, and Comorbidity of Migraine

  1. Matthew S. Robbins MD,
  2. Brian M. Grosberg MD and
  3. Richard B. Lipton MD
  1. Richard B. Lipton1,
  2. C. Mark Sollars2 and
  3. Dawn C. Buse1

Published Online: 19 JUL 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118678961.ch5



How to Cite

Lipton, R. B., Sollars, C. M. and Buse, D. C. (2013) Epidemiology, Progression, Prognosis, and Comorbidity of Migraine, in Headache (eds M. S. Robbins, B. M. Grosberg and R. B. Lipton), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118678961.ch5

Editor Information

  1. Montefi ore Headache Center, Saul R. Korey Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA

Author Information

  1. 1

    Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA

  2. 2

    Montefi ore Headache Center, Bronx, NY, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 19 JUL 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470654729

Online ISBN: 9781118678961



  • migraine;
  • episodic migraine (EM);
  • chronic migraine (CM);
  • prevalence;
  • incidence;
  • headache-related disability;
  • burden;
  • comorbidity;
  • progression;
  • risk factors


Based on headache days, migraine is divided into episodic (EM) with <15 headache days per month and chronic migraine (CM) with ≥15 headache days per month. Episodic migraine affects an estimated 12% of the population including 18% of females and 6% of males. CM affects 1 to 2% of the population with a similar female preponderance. Approximately 2.5% of persons with EM progress to CM over the course of one year. There are several variables which have been associated with the progression to CM. Migraine can be disabling, burdensome and affect all life aspects (e.g., occupational, academic, social, familiar, and personal.) Associated burden and disability is even greater for persons with CM as seen in headache-related disability/impact, socioeconomic status, health-related quality of life, medical and psychiatry comorbidities, healthcare resource utilization and direct and indirect costs.