7. Preparation of Environmental Liquid Samples for Inorganic Analysis

  1. John R. Dean

Published Online: 18 OCT 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118683422.ch07

Environmental Trace Analysis: Techniques and Applications

Environmental Trace Analysis: Techniques and Applications

How to Cite

Dean, J. R. (ed) (2013) Preparation of Environmental Liquid Samples for Inorganic Analysis, in Environmental Trace Analysis: Techniques and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118683422.ch07

Editor Information

  1. Department of Applied Sciences, Northumbria University, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 18 OCT 2013
  2. Published Print: 29 NOV 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781119962700

Online ISBN: 9781118683422

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Keywords:

  • co-precipitation;
  • environmental liquid samples;
  • inorganic analysis;
  • ion exchange;
  • liquid-liquid extraction;
  • metals

Summary

This chapter provides an outline of the options available for the preparation of aqueous samples for inorganic analysis. Environmental aqueous samples will come in a variety of forms, including surface waters, groundwater, atmospheric precipitation, estuarine water, drinking water, and waste water. While they may all appear to be similar in nature, that is water, their composition can vary enormously with both temporal (i.e. time) and spatial variation. Determining the metal content of waters can be challenging in terms of the choice of analytical technique. This is because, fortunately, the concentration levels of toxic elements in waters are low. The chapter describes a variety of pre-concentration approaches. The major disadvantage of co-precipitation is that the precipitate, which is present at a high mass to metal ratio, can be a major source of contamination. The chapter then focuses on liquid-liquid extraction of metals; ion exchange; and co-precipitation.