1. Anne E. Marteel-Parrish1 and
  2. Martin A. Abraham2

Published Online: 31 JAN 2014

DOI: 10.1002/9781118720011.ch7

Green Chemistry and Engineering: A Pathway to Sustainability

Green Chemistry and Engineering: A Pathway to Sustainability

How to Cite

Marteel-Parrish, A. E. and Abraham, M. A. (2013) THERMODYNAMICS, SEPARATIONS, AND EQUILIBRIUM, in Green Chemistry and Engineering: A Pathway to Sustainability, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ. doi: 10.1002/9781118720011.ch7

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Chemistry, Washington College

  2. 2

    College of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, Youngstown State University

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 31 JAN 2014
  2. Published Print: 28 OCT 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470413265

Online ISBN: 9781118720011



  • equilibrium;
  • ideal gas;
  • separation;
  • thermodynamics


There are two essential elements: the state of the material, in other words, its physical characteristics such as temperature or specific volume and the processes that the materials that make up the system may undergo as energy is exchanged. There must be more to the properties of gases than can be described through the ideal gas law. For real fluids, the enthalpy can also be a function of pressure. Under these circumstances, we need a new method of evaluating the thermodynamic properties of the fluid. For liquid–vapor equilibrium, we used Raoult's law to estimate the amount of the liquid that could transfer into the vapor phase. Solid liquid equilibrium is observed when a solid is dissolved into a liquid solvent, such as a salt in water. In such cases in the inorganic chemical industry, crystallization is employed as a separation process, particularly where salts are recovered from aqueous media.