60. Assessment and Treatment in Non-Western Countries

  1. Paul Emmelkamp2 and
  2. Thomas Ehring3
  1. Devon E. Hinton

Published Online: 4 APR 2014

DOI: 10.1002/9781118775349.ch60

The Wiley Handbook of Anxiety Disorders

The Wiley Handbook of Anxiety Disorders

How to Cite

Hinton, D. E. (2014) Assessment and Treatment in Non-Western Countries, in The Wiley Handbook of Anxiety Disorders (eds P. Emmelkamp and T. Ehring), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118775349.ch60

Editor Information

  1. 2

    University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands

  2. 3

    University of Münster, Germany

Author Information

  1. Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 4 APR 2014
  2. Published Print: 24 MAR 2014

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781118775356

Online ISBN: 9781118775349



  • anxiety disoder assessment;
  • anxiety disorder treatment;
  • cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT);
  • culturally sensitive treatment;
  • non-Western countries;
  • stress


This chapter discusses how to assess anxiety in non-Western populations, focusing on those processes that generate anxiety disorders. It then shows how this model of anxiety generation reveals how to conduct effective and culturally sensitive treatment. Catastrophic cognitions constitute a key producer of anxiety disorders. In a particular cultural context, anxiety symptoms are often considered to indicate dangerous problems with the physiology of the body or the functioning of the mind. Every culture will have various ways of decreasing distress and these will impact on whether distress reaches the point of psychopathology and impact on the pathological processes. The chapter explains how cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can be culturally adapted. Regardless of the patient's primary anxiety disorder, uncontrollable worry itself is a key treatment target among refugee and minority populations.