12. Disorders of the Canine Forelimb: Veterinary Diagnosis and Treatment

  1. M. Christine Zink DVM, PhD, Dipl ACVP and
  2. Janet B. Van Dyke DVM
  1. Sherman O Canapp Jr., DVM, MS, Dipl ACVS and
  2. Kristin Kirkby DVM, MS, PhD, Dipl ACVS, CCRT

Published Online: 28 JUN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9781118783443.ch12

Canine Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation

Canine Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation

How to Cite

Zink, M. C. and Van Dyke, J. B. (2013) Disorders of the Canine Forelimb: Veterinary Diagnosis and Treatment, in Canine Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., West Sussex, UK. doi: 10.1002/9781118783443.ch12

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 28 JUN 2013
  2. Published Print: 11 APR 2013

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780813812168

Online ISBN: 9781118783443



  • biceps tendinopathy;
  • canine forelimb;
  • elbow dysplasia;
  • infraspinatus myopathy;
  • medial shoulder syndrome (MSS);
  • shoulder disorders;
  • supraspinatus tendinopathy;
  • veterinary diagnosis


Shoulder conditions are common causes of forelimb lameness in dogs, particularly performance dogs. The authors have found subscapularis tendinopathy, supraspinatus tendinopathy, biceps tendinopathy, and infraspinatus myopathy to be the most frequently diagnosed conditions, respectively. The etiologies of these conditions are not fully understood but appear to be related to repetitive strain injuries. Rest and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are typically prescribed at initial presentation but are largely ineffective, resulting in continued or recurring lameness. Appropriate diagnosis is necessary for effective management. This chapter reviews presentation, diagnostic modalities, and treatment for these conditions. Elbow dysplasia includes fragmented medial coronoid process (FCP), ununited anconeal process (UAP), and osteochondrosis (OC). Physical rehabilitation is crucial for optimal postsurgical, nonsurgical, and long-term management of dogs with elbow dysplasia. Ununited medial epicondyle, incomplete ossification of the humeral condyle and radius curvus are additional developmental disorders of the elbow discussed in the chapter.